Life promoting benefits

Hydrogen - How it works!

Hydrogen (Neutralizes Free Radicals)It is recommended to drink anywhere between 1.0 mg/L - 3.0 mg/L of hydrogen water for therapeutic effect (source: Molecular Hydrogen Foundation). Spring Aqua clean water technology is specially designed to generate negative hydrogen ion water, 1.4 mg/L - 1.6mg/L, and creates water with up to -750mv redox potential (ORP), providing our water with exemplary antioxidant properties. and capable of donating electrons to harmful radicals in the body and preserve cellular health.

Hydrogen (Neutralizes Free Radicals)It is recommended to drink anywhere between 1.0 mg/L - 3.0 mg/L of hydrogen water for therapeutic effect (source: Molecular Hydrogen Foundation). Spring Aqua clean water technology is specially designed to generate negative hydrogen ion water, 1.4 mg/L - 1.6mg/L, and creates water with up to -750mv redox potential (ORP), providing our water with exemplary antioxidant properties. and capable of donating electrons to harmful radicals in the body and preserve cellular health.

Drinking 1 Liter of Spring Aqua (about 4 glasses a day) has the same antioxidant effects as consuming the following amount of fruits and vegetables:

How to get the benefits of hydrogen

From the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation

Methods of administration

There are a number of methods to consume molecular hydrogen [1] gas (H2),1 including inhalation of H2,2 injection of H2-rich saline,3 dropping H2-rich saline into eyes,4 taking a bath in H2-rich water [2], 5 increasing H2 production by intestinal bacteria,6 topical application,7 oral ingestion of hydrogen producing tablets,7 and simply drinking H2-rich water.8

Which method is the best?

Each one of these methods has a therapeutic effect. Although drinking H2-rich water doesn’t provide as many hydrogen molecules to the body as other methods, it is likely the easiest and a very effective approach. In fact, in one study using a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, it was seen that drinking H2-rich water, but not inhaling 2% H2 gas or increasing intestinal H2 production via lactulose administration, was effective.10Perhaps this is because inhaling H2 gas and H2 gas production via the bacteria gives a continuous exposure of H2 (allowing homeostasis to be achieved), but drinking H2 water gives an intermittent exposure. Indeed this same study showed that intermittent inhalation of 2% H2 was somewhat effective. Another reason that drinking H2 water is important is because it allows gastric induction of ghrelin, which is mediated via activation of beta 1 adrenergic receptors. The consensus is that not only is drinking H2-rich water the easiest, it is often the most effective.

Methods to produce h2-rich water

There are a number of ways to produce H2 water, including electrolysis (e.g. water ionizers, or hydrogen-specific devices), reaction of water with alkali-earth metals (e.g. elemental magnesium), or simply bubbling H2 gas into water.

Water ionizers and electrolysis

Water ionizers produce hydrogen gas by means of electrolysis. Electrolysis of water is perhaps the most well-known method, as it is the primary mode of mass-producing molecular hydrogen gas for energy.*Read about electrolysis [3]*Read about water ionizers [4]*Read about alkaline ionized water [5] The hydrogen gas concentration from water ionizers varies significantly from less than 0.05 ppm to over 2.5 ppm depending on source water, flow rate, design, and cleanliness of the electrodes. Importantly, alkaline water ionizers were developed decades before the therapeutic importance of molecular hydrogen was known. Thus, these units were optimized for alkaline pH not high dissolved hydrogen [6] concentration. Typically, at normal flow and with normal source water, the concentration of H2 from an alkaline water ionizer is around 0.1 ppm to 0.7 ppm. By running the water very slowly, these machines may increase the molecular hydrogen concentration, but the resulting pH is very high, making the water unpalatable. The ability to produce high concentrations of molecular hydrogen at a palatable pH (less than 9.5 or neutral), as well as what is required to maintain this concentration are important parameters when considering one of these machines. Unfortunately, most water ionizer companies not only don’t know the concentration of H2 their machines produce, but they have no idea that the dissolved H2 that is the therapeutic agent. And, while many companies tout the negative ORP [7] of their water, the negative ORP is only an indication of the presence of dissolved hydrogen, but not an accurate measurement of the concentration. Another method of producing hydrogen-rich water using electrolysis is by H2 infusion. That is hydrogen gas is produced and then directly infused into the filtered water in the machine. This allows for the easy production of a high concentration of hydrogen water at neutral pH in a flow-through system. There are also batch type systems which are on the market.

Metals + water = molecular hydrogen

Another convenient and easy method to produce H2-rich water is by adding alkali-earth metals to water.15 It is well-known for example that adding sodium or potassium metal to water results in a fiery explosion (See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJslbQiYrYY [8]) Notice this is the metallic form not an ionic salt (i.e. sodium metal not sodium chloride [Na+ Cl–]). The reason that this reaction occurs is because the metals rapidly give off their outer valance electron to the water, which produces molecular hydrogen and sodium hydroxide: (3Na + 2H2O –> H2 + NaOH). The produced sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissociates to form sodium ions (Na+) and hydroxide ions (OH–) according to: NaOH –> Na+ + OH–. These metals react so violently with water that enough heat is produced to ignite the produced hydrogen gas. Magnesium metal also reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas: [Mg + 2H2O –> H2 + Mg(OH)2]. The magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH–)2) dissociates into magnesium ions (Mg2+ ) and hydroxide [9] ions (OH-) according to the equilibrium: Mg(OH)2 <–> Mg2+ + 2OH–. However, the reaction is not as exothermic and thus does not carry any risk of explosion. This method of hydrogen-rich water production is commonly used among researchers for human studies, because of it’s ease of use. The concentration of molecular hydrogen is generally near saturation (1.6 ppm),which allows the subjects to ingest greater quantities of molecular hydrogen without having to consume a copious volume of water (1 liter vs. 10 liters). [1]

Spring Aqua Method

Spring Aqua uses magnesium metal that reacts with water to produce hydrogen as: [Mg + 2H2O –> H2 + Mg(OH)2]. Spring Aqua clean water technology produces between 1.4ppm-1.6ppm mg/L of hydrogen. It has been tested and certified [10] by Taipei Technology University to ensure the quality, consistency, and accuracy. We believe this method is the best way to deliver consistent hydrogen month after month into our customers homes.

[1] Molecular Hydrogen Foundation - How to get the benefits of hydrogen.

[2] Molecular Hydrogen For Healthy Skin

[3] Electrolysis

[4] Water Ionizers (Electrolyzers)

[5] Mildly Alkaline Ionized Water: Characteristics, Benefits, And Future

[6] Dissolved vs Undissolved

[7] ORP

[8] Sodium and Potassium In Water

[9] Hydroxide (OH–): Antioxidant? Radical? Or Neither?

[10] Certified - H2 how it works

Water Ionizers and Hydrogen Water Generators

From the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation

On the market there are currently two main methods to obtain hydrogen-rich water via electric flow-through systems; namely, alkaline water ionizers [2] and neutral-pH hydrogen water generators. A brief discussion of some of the pros and cons are noted below.

Alkaline Water Ionizers

This technology has been around for many decades. It uses a process of electrolysis [3] to produce hydrogen gas and alkaline water [4] at the cathode and oxygen/chlorine gas and acidic water [5] at the anode. The anode and cathode are separated by a membrane, which allows for the separation of alkaline and acidic water.Many people have reported benefits from using alkaline water ionizers, but it wasn’t until 2007-2010 that scientists and researchers understood that the therapeutic property in alkaline ionized water was hydrogen gas (see this article [6]). Alkaline water ionizers were optimized and designed to produce alkaline water, not hydrogen gas. There are 3 observations with these systems:some alkaline water ionizers do not contain sufficient levels of dissolved hydrogen gas or at least their concentration is below a detection limit of 0.01 ppm.Some alkaline water ionizers can produce adequate hydrogen gas levels, but due to their production of alkaline water, the electrodes tend to scale up quickly, which prevents the hydrogen gas from dissolving [7] into the water. Therefore, without cleaning the systems with citric acid or vinegar, the concentration of hydrogen gas can also drop below 0.01 ppm in a matter of days to weeks depending on source water and usage.Some alkaline water ionizers employ a reversing-polarity technology, which significantly prevents scale build up on the electrodes, allowing the user to go longer (months to years) without having to use vinegar or citric acid.(see this article for additional information [8])In all circumstances, the concentration of hydrogen gas drastically depends on source water and flow rate (and of course the design and amount of scaling on the electrodes). This makes the concentration vary from less than 0.01 ppm to nearly 3 ppm, with an average being between 0.4 to 1 ppm at: 1) normal flow rate, 2) average source water, and 3) clean electrodes. It is also important to note that, although some alkaline water ionizers may be able to produce a very high H2 concentration by slowing the flow of the water, this produced water often has a very high pH, which can make the water unpalatable. In this case, it is easy to reduce the pH by adding a few drops of lemon juice (citric acid) to lower the pH while maintaining the higher dissolved H2 level.These points focus exclusively on hydrogen gas; although some people may like being able to produce the acidic water and alkaline water, which often becomes more of subjective preferences as opposed to clear scientific analysis.

Neutral-PH Hydrogen Water Generators

There are a number of ways that these types of machines can be designed, but the goal is to produce a high concentration of hydrogen gas without altering the pH. Of course some units are designed better than others. Some of the better ones employ the use of a special membrane in the electrolysis chambers optimized for hydrogen gas production known as a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). This is a proven technology that is so effective that it is often now used for mass production of hydrogen gas and also used in fuel cells. However, recently it has been employed in hydrogen-rich water generators. A few points on this are:These machines have been optimized and designed to produce neutral pH with high hydrogen gas levels.These machines are often more consistent in their hydrogen concentration and do not vary as much based on source water and flow rate.Because they do not change the pH, and the process of hydrogen dissolution is different, scaling and subsequent cessation of a high hydrogen concentration is less of a concern.Although the use of this technology for producing hydrogen-rich water is new, the PEM technology is highly advanced. The machines that use this technology often have a concentration between 0.8 to 1.5 ppm depending on the machine (and thus also usage of time). Importantly, not all neutral pH hydrogen water flow-through systems will produce levels of 0.8 ppm and above, some only produce 0.1 to 0.5 ppm. This is often because these types of units do not use the PEM technology and instead use conventional alkaline water ionizer chambers, but just don’t split the water into acidic and alkaline streams.

Dissolved Hydrogen and pH

When talking about hydrogen, some will fail to make the important distinction as to which species of hydrogen is being discussed (see “Dummies Guide to Hydrogen” [9]). The positive hydrogen ion (H+) is often referred to as “hydrogen”. But, this form of hydrogen is responsible for the “acid” level (pH) of water (see “Understanding pH” [10]). If one assumes that the hydrogen ion is the species being discussed, they may think that adding hydrogen gas (H2) to water will change the pH of the water. But, molecular hydrogen (H2) is a neutral molecule which, when dissolved in water, has no influence on the water’s pH. Alkaline ionizers raise the pH of the water not as a direct result of adding H2 but because in order to produce H2, they must consume the H+ions in the water, thus making the water more alkaline. Methods of producing hydrogen water such as bubbling or infusing, which simply add pure hydrogen gas to water, do so without changing the original pH of the water. [1]

Spring Aqua System

Spring Aqua Clean Water Technology uses a natural 14 filtration system (Eco system in a box). The vision was to design a technology that supports dual purpose use. "Pure, clean, safe (first purpose) and life promoting (second purpose). What is the benefit of drinking water that has health benefits but the water was not clean or never cleaned (filtered)? The only maintenance required is an annual filter change. Spring Aqua technology produces a consistent 1.4ppm-1.6ppm mg/L which is above the level required for potential therapeutic benefits.

[1] Molecular Hydrogen Foundation - Water Ionizers and Hydrogen Water Generators

[2] Alkaline Water Ionizers - Water Ionizers (Electrolyzers)

[3] Electrolysis

[4] Alkaline Water - Mildly Alkaline Ionized Water: Characteristics, Benefits, And Future

[5] Mildly Acidic Water

[6] Mildly Alkaline Ionized Water

[7] Dissolving

[8] Dissolved Hydrogen vs Undissolved Hydrogen

[9] Dummies Guide to Hydrogen

[10] Understanding pH

Dissolved Hydrogen vs Undissolved Hydrogen

From the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation

Hydrogen Gas In The Water

"The manner in which hydrogen gas is dissolved in the water has an effect on its stability and rate of exsolution (coming out of solution) and dissipation. Hydrogen gas can exist in water as fully dissolved gaseous solutes, colloidal and suspension forms, as well as large macrobubbles that exit almost immediately. There are many things to consider when discussing hydrogen in water including macro, micro and nano-bubbles, zeta potential, nucleation, solvation, Ostwald ripening, bubble coalescence, ionic strength, and other factors that affect solubility and half-life.However, it is important to consider that simply bubbling hydrogen gas into water or producing it in water (e.g. metallic magnesium, electrolysis via water ionizers, etc.), does not necessarily mean that the water will contain a saturated level or even a therapeutic level of hydrogen gas. Indeed, some water ionizers are able to produce a high alkaline pH, and thus by default “produce” hydrogen gas, but the concentration of hydrogen gas in the water may be less than 0.05 ppm.

Alighter Demo

A great example of undissolved hydrogen can be seen with the “lighter demo”, in which a flame is held near the alkaline output hose of some “water ionizers” and a “crackling” sound can be heard along with small visible sparks as the hydrogen gas ignites. But, the hydrogen gas that ignites is only the “undissolved” hydrogen gas, which immediately evaporates into the air, thus offering no therapeutic value. Therefore, the “crackling” sound that can be heard with the “lighter demo” only indicates that hydrogen gas was produced via electrolysis, but the amount dissolved may actually be below the therapeutic level.

“MILKY” Like Water & Bubbles

Undissolved hydrogen gas can also be seen in some cases with conventional alkaline water ionizer where the water looks “milky” or “foggy” due to all the large hydrogen gas bubbles. Therefore, just because a water looks milky or you can see many bubbles in the water does not indicate that the water has a high concentration of molecular hydrogen. In fact, the actual concentration may even be below the detection/therapeutic level.Conventional alkaline water ionizers were developed decades before the importance of hydrogen gas was known, thus their design was optimized to produce alkaline water not dissolved hydrogen gas. In fact, some water ionizers may produce very high alkaline water, but with no detectable amounts of hydrogen gas. This is also observed in many water ionizers that may produce an adequate level of hydrogen gas when the electrodes and hoses are clean, but after calcium builds up within the machine, the level of hydrogen gas can fall below the detection limit (this may take a few days to weeks or months depending on the source water and usage). This fact also underscores the importance of regular cleaning and maintenance, with different machines requiring different maintenance programs. This also explains the frequent observation experienced by alkaline ionized water users, that when they clean their machine the water “feels fresh and therapeutic like when the machine was brand-new”. Importantly, one cannot rely on ORP readings to verify that their water has high hydrogen gas levels. You can have a -700 mV reading while having over 1 ppm of H2, or less than 0.05 ppm of H2. (see: this article for an explanation).

Summary

In conclusion, there is an important relationship between the total amount of hydrogen gas produced and the total amount of dissolved hydrogen gas. The higher the percent of hydrogen gas that gets dissolved the more efficient the system. Thus, if a system were fully optimized you would not see any hydrogen bubbles or hear any crackling sound during the lighter demo. Although the presence of bubbles or the crackling sound doesn’t mean the water contains high hydrogen levels, it also doesn’t mean that it contains low hydrogen levels. [1]"

Spring Aqua Hydrogen

Spring Aqua hydrogen is made from elemental chemistry using magnesium, and the fact that we are energy independent using a filtration method and a organic process, like Eco System in a box, to filter our water, the Hydrogen content in our water is extremely stable because we are not involving any outside electricity to show the water and create an unstable reaction. Therefore, the hydrogen in Spring Aqua creates a high concentration of dissolved hydrogen at 1.4ppm-1.6ppm mg/L, which above the level required for potential therapeutic benefits.

[1] Molecular Hydrogen Foundation - Dissolved Hydrogen vs Undissolved Hydrogen

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